I’m going to assume that you are already familiar with the double ampersand operator in Ruby - the logical AND. This post is going to focus on all uses of the single ampersand operator. & can be quite confusing because it has a different meaning depending on the context in which it’s used. In fact, both unary (&object) and binary (object & object) operations have meaning in Ruby. To understand these let’s look at the uses of & in core Ruby.

The Binary Ampersand

In Ruby 1.9.3 there are three uses for the binary ampersand operator.

Bitwise AND

Bitwise AND is the binary bit-by-bit equivalent of boolean AND. So binary 101 & 100 = 100 and binary 101 & 001 = 001. & is defined as a bitwise AND operator for Bignum, Fixnum and Process::Status and simply converts the integer into a binary representation and performs a bitwise AND on that representation. Process::Status converts the process status number to a Fixnum and uses that to perform the operation.

irb(main):001:0> 14 & 13
=> 12

The result of this operation can be clearly seen by converting the numbers to their binary representations.

irb(main):001:0> "#{14.to_s(2)} & #{13.to_s(2)} = #{12.to_s(2)}"
=> "1110 & 1101 = 1100"

Set Intersection

Possibly the simplest use of the binary & operator is in the Array class. & is the set-intersection operator, which means the result is a collection of the common elements in both arrays.

irb(main):001:0> [1,2,3] & [1,2,5,6]
=> [1, 2]

Boolean AND

On the FalseClass, NilClass and TrueClass binary & is the equivalent of the boolean AND. Keep in mind this does not work like the && operator, since it is only defined on these three classes.

irb(main):001:0> false & true
=> false
irb(main):002:0> nil & true
=> false
irb(main):003:0> true & Object.new
=> true
irb(main):004:0> Object.new & true
=> NoMethodError: undefined method `&' for #<Object:0x007f9e7ac96420>

Custom Definitions

When the binary ampersand operator is invoked (First & Second) Ruby executes the definition from the first object (First#&). You can write your own binary ampersand method easily. When I do, I try to keep the first two core Ruby uses in mind - bitwise AND and set intersection. I don’t like using logical AND because it is already covered by the && operator and is only defined on true, false and nil, which are special classes. Here is a custom example that works like set intersection.

DNA = Struct.new(:chain) do
  def triples

  def &(dna)
    (triples & dna.triples).map{ |triple| triple.join }
irb(main):001:0> DNA.new('AGGTTACCA') & DNA.new('TTAAGGCCC')
=> ["AGG", "TTA"]

The Unary &

The Unary & is a little more complex. It is almost the equivalent of calling #to_proc on the object, but not quite. To understand it let’s go over some background first. In Ruby you have two kinds of code blocks, Blocks and Procs. The two are very closely related but have some important differences. You can define and reference Procs and assign them to variables. Blocks are always related to a method call and can’t be defined outside of that context. The way you tell them apart is that Procs are always preceded by Proc.new, proc, lambda or ->() when they are defined.

# A block that is passed to the each function on the [1,2,3] Array.
[1,2,3].each do |x|
  puts x

# A proc assigned to a variable.
k = Proc.new{ |x| puts x }

All methods have one and only one implicit Block argument, whether you use it or not. You can access it by calling yield in the method body.

def two
irb(main):001:0> two{ |x| x*2 }
=> 4

Blocks are pretty useless outside of function calls though, for instance you can’t just define one.

irb(main):001:0> { |x| x*2 }
=> SyntaxError: syntax error, unexpected '|', expecting '}'

But you can define and reference Procs.

irb(main):001:0> Proc.new{ |x| x*2 }
=> #<Proc:0x007f9e7ab766a8@(pry):30>

Procs fall into two categories. Procs that are lambda?, lambda procs, and Procs that aren’t, simple procs. Lambdas are defined using lambda or ->() and whereas simple procs are defined using Proc.new or proc.

irb(main):001:0> lambda{ |x| x*2 }
=> #<Proc:0x007f9e8a8c3f40@(pry):34 (lambda)>
irb(main):002:0> ->(x){ x*2 }
=> #<Proc:0x007f9e7a896ed8@(pry):35 (lambda)>
irb(main):003:0> Proc.new{ |x| x*2 }
=> #<Proc:0x007f9e7a8f95d8@(pry):36>
irb(main):004:0> proc{ |x| x*2 }
=> #<Proc:0x007f9e7a950e28@(pry):37>

I’m not going to delve into the details of lambdas and simple procs, but there are two basic differences and it’s important to know that they exist. The first is that lambdas are strict argument checkers, like methods, they can throw an ArgumentError exception. Simple procs will just ignore incorrect, extra or fewer argument combinations. The second is that lambdas act like methods regarding their return status - they can return values just like methods. When you try to return a value from a simple proc you end up with a LocalJumpError.

Now back to our unary ampersand operator. Since both Blocks and Procs are useful, it’s convenient to be able to switch between them - enter &.

&object is evaluated in the following way:

  • if object is a block, it converts the block into a simple proc.
  • if object is a Proc, it converts the object into a block while preserving the lambda? status of the object.
  • if object is not a Proc, it first calls #to_proc on the object and then converts it into a block.

Let’s examine each of these steps individually.

If object is a block, it converts the block to a simple proc.

The simplest example of this is when we want to have access to the block we pass to a method, instead of just calling yield. To do this we need to convert the block into a proc.

def describe(&block)
  "The block that was passed has parameters: #{block.parameters}"
irb(main):001:0> describe{ |a,b| }
=> "The block that was passed has parameters: [[:opt, :a], [:opt, :b]]"
irb(main):002:0> describe do |*args|
irb(main):003:0> end
=> "The block that was passed has parameters: [[:rest, :args]]"

If object is a Proc, it converts the object into a block while preserving

the lambda? status of the object.

This is an extremely useful case of the & operator. For instance, we know that Array#map takes a block, but say we have a proc that we want to re-use in multiple map calls.

irb(main):001:0> multiply = lambda{ |x| x*2 }

irb(main):002:0> [1,2,3].map(&multiply)
=> [2, 4, 6]
irb(main):003:0> [4,5,6].map(&multiply)
=> [8, 10, 12]

Keep in mind that the operator also preserves the lambda? status of the original block. That’s kind of neat because it means we are able to pass lambdas (not simple procs) as blocks. That means we can impose strict argument checking in our blocks and we can have them return values using the return keyword. The only exception to this preservation is methods, which are always lambdas regardless of how they are defined.

def describe(&block)
  "Calling lambda? on the block results in #{block.lambda?}."
irb(main):001:0> describe(&lambda{})
=> "Calling lambda? on the block results in true."
irb(main):002:0> describe(&proc{})
=> "Calling lambda? on the block results in false."
class Container
  define_method(:m, &proc{})
irb(main):001:0> describe(&Container.new.method(:m).to_proc)
=> "Calling lambda? on the block results in true."

If object is not a Proc, it first calls #to_proc on the object and then converts it into a block.

This is where the magic really happens because it makes passing objects to functions in the place of blocks very simple. The most common case of this is probably calling into Array#map with a symbol.

irb(main):001:0> ["1", "2", "3"].map(&:to_i)
=> [1, 2, 3]

This works because calling Symbol#to_proc returns a proc that responds to the symbol’s method. So the :to_i symbol is first converted to a proc, and then to a block. This is kind of cool because we can create our own to_proc methods.

class Display
  def self.to_proc
    lambda{ |x| puts(x) }

class FancyDisplay
  def self.to_proc
    lambda{ |x| puts("** #{x} **") }
irb(main):001:0> greetings = ["Hi", "Hello", "Welcome"]

irb(main):002:0> greetings.map(&Display)
=> [nil, nil, nil]

irb(main):003:0> greetings.map(&FancyDisplay)
** Hi **
** Hello **
** Welcome **
=> [nil, nil, nil]

Hopefully this post has clarified the binary and unary ampersand operator in Ruby. It’s a fun operator. In the binary form it can provide us with a shorthand way of doing bitwise AND and set intersection like operations. In the unary form it provides us with some powerful functionality for converting blocks and procs.